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## BLOG SINGLE

19 Jan

### artificial lighting strategies

0000110702 00000 n Planning for daylight therefore involves integrating the perspectives and requirements of various specialities and professionals. ISO 14040:2006(E) Environmental management – life cycle assessment – principles and framework, Xue C, Goh QY, Tan W, Hossain I, Chen WN, Lau R (2011) Lumostatic strategy for microalgae cultivation utilizing image analysis and chlorophyll a content as design parameters. Enzyme Microb Technol 27:631–635, Lim KC, Zaleha K (2013) Effect of photoperiod on the cellular fatty acid composition of three tropical marine microalgae. 0000223543 00000 n Presence of natural light in an occupied space brings a sense of wellbeing, increases awareness of one’s surrounding and also increases energy saving potential with reduced dependence on artificial light. Besides, when assessing the environmental impacts related to the different artificial illuminations strategies (considering a functional unit of 1 day of operation), in a system continuously illuminated (long-term photoperiod 24:0), we can estimate (Table 6) an ecotoxicity of 3.10 × 101 CTUe, energy resource of 9.73 MJ, global warming potential of 4.50 kg CO2 eq, photochemical oxidation potential of 1.00 × 10−1 kg O3 eq, acidification potential of 2.40 × 10−2 kg SO2 eq, eutrophication potential of 8.57 × 10−3 kg N eq and ozone depletion potential of 1.37 × 10−6 kg CFC-11 eq. Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve practical or aesthetic effects. Effects of long-term photoperiods (a), frequency photoperiods (b) and short photoperiods (c) on the biomass and lipid productivity. It was evident that both protein and carbohydrates did not influence any of the oil production parameters. 0000141691 00000 n Table 3 shows the fatty acid (FA) composition of the oil extracts from the sixteen light/dark cycle evaluated here. The tests were carried out in duplicate, and the kinetic data referred to the mean of four repetitions. Figure 2 also presents the calorific value for all the photoperiods evaluated. The net energy ratio (NER) $$[{\text{NER}} = \sum {\text{Eout}}/\sum {\text{Ein}}]$$ of a system was defined as the ratio of the total energy produced per day (energy content of the residual biomass, MJ/d) over the energy required for lighting and timer digital of the photobioreactor per day (MJ/d), where Eout is the renewable energy output and Ein is the fossil fuel energy input. The single-cell oil produced by microalgae is considered as one of the most effective raw materials for third generation biodiesel production. 0000007790 00000 n As unsaturations are prone to oxidation, the polyunsaturated FAs are firstly degraded [28, 29]. Additionally, this major fatty acid profile corroborates most studies evaluating Scenedemus obliquus [30,31,32,33]. PubMed Google Scholar. 0000099712 00000 n xref 0000027797 00000 n 0000064540 00000 n [12] evaluated the growth of Scenedesmus obliquus under the condition of 24:00 h (light: dark) operating in batch mode found lower values of biomass productivity to 6.25 mg/L h. Likewise, Vendruscolo et al. This work aimed to evaluate the artificial lighting strategies to increase the viability of microalgae biodiesel production. Data in brief 24(1):103900–103903, Qu Z, Duan P, Cao X, Liu M, Lin L, Li M (2019) Comparison of monoculture and mixed culture (Scenedesmus obliquus and wild algae) for C, N, and P removal and lipid production. 0000064471 00000 n 686 135 Conversely, Table 4 showed that all conditions tested were lower than that of international standards established for kinematic viscosity. 0000026626 00000 n Besides, the same behavior for Scenedesmus obliquus was found at a long-term photoperiod of 12:12, corresponding to lower values in the order of 0.0023 g/L h [21]. 1c. To calculate the net energy balance (NEB) $$[{\text{NEB}} = \sum {\text{inputs}} - \sum {\text{outputs}}]$$ the inputs were considered as the energy required for lighting the photobioreactor per day and the outputs as the energy produced per day. Conversely, the modulation of the light cycle appears as an alternative to reduce the demand for electrical energy in microalgal cultivations and then develop cheaper and more efficient processes. A higher CN value means better ignition properties and engine performance. 0000110521 00000 n An artificial lighting is used to supplement the day lighting for the selected office space. Bioresour Technol 102:6005–6012, Vendruscolo RG, Fagundes MB, Maroneze MM, de Nascimento TC, de Menezes CR, Barin JS, Zepka LQ, Jacob-Lopes E, Wagner R (2019) Scenedesmus obliquus metabolomics: effect of photoperiods and cell growth phases. Not surprisingly, the lipid content was highly correlated with the calorific value. However, the qualitative profile of the lipid fraction should also be considered to choose an ideal growing condition for bioenergy production. 0000002996 00000 n ), thereby reducing artificial lighting requirements and saving energy. This explanation was confirmed by the light regimes of 24:0 h, 22:2 h, 20:4 h, 1 t/d, 8 t/d, 12 t/d, and 48 t/d, which showed the highest PUFAs values and consequently lower CN values (below the values established by the highest international standards). The use of artificial lighting is crucial in agriculture and gardening, particularly in indoor cultivation. These results show that Scenedesmus obliquus CPCC05 can store sufficient energy to sustain cell metabolism for periods of up to 2 h uninterrupted in the dark, without affecting the biomass productivity. And doing this affects the final image more than anything. <]>> LinkedIn used a similar strategy in 2011 when piloting a new wireless lighting control system in an office building more than 20 years old. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 42(5):727–739, Seyfabadi J, Ramezanpour Z, Khoeyi JA (2011) Protein, fatty acid, and pigment content of Chlorella vulgaris under different light regimes. SN Applied Sciences The maximum cell productivity (47.02 mg/L) was found in the photoperiod of 24:00 h (light: dark), followed by 22:02 h, which has biomass productivity of 42.66 mg/L h. Nevertheless, in these two conditions, no significant difference (Tukey’s test p < 0.05) was observed. The first PCA was performed to examine the relationship between the feedstock production parameters. 0000064698 00000 n 0000142031 00000 n Energy -efficient lighting is the use of artificial light to receive the optimal level of light for the lowest energy investment. In order to reap all of the benefits and healing power of natural light in office spaces, you need to have a clear vision and trusted guidance. Obviously, there is a direct reduction of the environmental impact with the illumination time. Besides, the productivities of the process, the chemical composition of the biomass, biodiesel quality, and energy balance were assessed. 0000114139 00000 n In this sense, Table 5 shows the energy balance of microalgae culture in different light regimes. The international standards requires a minimum CN of 45 (ANP 255), 47 (ASTM D6751), or 51 (EN14214). A future change of use – or change of layout – could undermine lighting strategies adopted in the original design. 0000113459 00000 n 0000113629 00000 n x�bb�y����&� Ā B�@Q�F �����6 ����T���\$�e�:x��ȊL�\�6mʄnn�I�Kg/��>�F�����o���es�[�.�˞%Ÿ�}�Yf&!i ��;�ڦtO�6}��쥽��p�/nm/ZP8wV~ޜe����{�fְ�0��͓e�j�b����8{�R��s� 4a, b, PCA1 and PCA2 explained 72.19% of the observed variation. Best for Industrial Areas, Office, or Outdoors with natural light available. The chemical composition of microalgal biomass was performed based on the method described in AOAC [15], except to total lipid concentration of the biomass, which was determined gravimetrically by the modified Bligh and Dyer method [16]. Besides, the functional unit considered was the energy demand for 1 operation day in the microalgal photobioreactors under the modeling of long-term, frequency and short photoperiods. As discussed herein above, the lipids are intracellular products and, therefore, the lipid productivity depends on both the lipid content as biomass productivity. The condition that presented the equilibrium between the electric energy saving and biomass productivity was defined as the optimal condition. The first culprit, dim lights, can be detrimental to productivity for several reasons. 0000108631 00000 n 0000223579 00000 n 0000223722 00000 n In other words, these photoperiods are more viable for biodiesel production in quantitative terms. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. An improvement can be seen in the productivity of the process, as it increases the number of frequencies per day. volume 1, Article number: 1695 (2019) Proc Nat Acad Sci 116(15):7192–7197. The objective and scope of the application of this LCA were to evaluate the environmental footprint of the energy requirements for long term photoperiods. These note the increase in the distribution and intensity of artificial light during the past few decades, and its potential to significantly disrupt species and ecosystems. The improvement of cellular growth under short photoperiods could be as a result of an enhanced dark respiration rates following a period of photosynthesis in light. Methyl esters of fatty acids, known as biodiesel, are non-toxic, biodegradable, and an excellent alternative to fossil diesel, since the combustion properties of this biofuel are similar to those of petroleum-based diesel [2]. 0000141861 00000 n 0000139631 00000 n Finally, the use of photoperiods also proved to be an effective strategy to improve the energy balance and reduce the environmental impact of the microalgae biodiesel production process. SN Appl. 0000040110 00000 n The light energy can be provided by the sunlight, which is the most cost-effective energy source for microalgal production. 0000007532 00000 n 0000175862 00000 n Several authors have previously reported that, besides reducing the operational costs of the process, the use of photoperiod can improve the photosynthetic rate as well as the productivity and quality of intracellular products [11,12,13]. 0000140447 00000 n %%EOF Cite this article. 0000172785 00000 n On especially bright days, blinds close to preserve the artworks, but levels are allowed to vary in order to embrace the changeability of sun and skylight both in tone and intensity. It was also observed that the photoperiod of 24 times per day had biomass productivity 35.8% higher than experiments with constant illumination. 0000108461 00000 n Daylighting optimizes natural sunlight entry into a building to minimize the need for artificial lighting. Sci. In comparison, the photoperiod of 18:6 showed a predominantly saturated profile (53.37%), followed by polyunsaturated FAs (28.13%). Biochemical composition and energy value of the microalgal biomass in different photoperiods. Artiﬁcial lighting systems have been used extensively in commercial greenhouses until the 1980s [31]. Therefore, reduction in the use of artificial lighting is vital. According to Ramos et al. Artiﬁcial lighting systems allow extension of the greenhouse production over a period in the year and increase the yield of the greenhouse, even in favorable climate zones and periods [32]. 0000187531 00000 n Artificial lighting strategies that seem most "natural" duplicate the same contrast pattern clues seen on 3D objects in various lighting conditions. The Best Lighting Design Strategies for Office Spaces. The biomass calorific value was calculated by the Atwater System, using factors of 17 kJ/g for protein, 37 kJ/g for lipid and 17 kJ/g for total carbohydrate content [17]. 0000040277 00000 n 0000110874 00000 n This is associated with the photolimitation condition that occurs when there is insufficient light to maintain metabolism [21]. The values for the maximum biomass (63.88 mg/L h) and lipid (18.9 mg/L h) productivities as well for the calorific value (20.4 kJ/g) were obtained at a photoperiod of 24 t/d. Biotechnol Adv 25:294–306, Chu FF, Chu PN, Shen XF, Lam PKS, Zeng RJ (2014) Effect of phosphorus on biodiesel production from Scenedesmus obliquus under nitrogen-deficiency stress. Thus, regardless of the photoperiod strategy adopted, the decision-making to replace the energy matrix with clean sources can bring immediate results to reduce environmental impacts [41]. PCA is a powerful statistical tool to analyze the interrelationships among a large number of variables and to explain these variables in a reduced number of information (principal components). 0000108285 00000 n 0000109831 00000 n It was qualitatively observed that the photoperiod significantly influenced the fatty acid profile of single-cell oil and, consequently, the quality of the produced biodiesel. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 37:735–741, Mitra M, Patidar SK, George B, Shah F, Mishra S (2015) A euryhaline Nannochloropsis gaditana with potential for nutraceutical (EPA) and biodiesel production. Starting at 100% brightness for all fixtures, the team gradually dropped the light levels by 5-10% every few days until they reached the optimum balance. 1a indicated that the photoperiod of 22:2 h was the condition that presented the equilibrium between the electric energy saving and biomass productivity. 0000110349 00000 n 0000164010 00000 n To study the effects of short light/dark cycles, four different cycles of (s: s) 0.91:0.09, 0.83:0.17, 0.75:0.25, and 0.50:0.50 (light: dark) were set every one second. The need to carefully consider 0000173754 00000 n 0000029584 00000 n This mechanism is known as enhanced post-illumination respiration [7, 23]. 0000112783 00000 n %PDF-1.6 %���� 0000187066 00000 n

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